With the learning curve of the first tax filing season in the TCJA era behind us, year-end tax planning is a perfect time to incorporate those lessons learned. Here is a general overview of some steps business owners can take in their year-end tax planning.

Depreciation-related Deductions

If your business has acquired a fixed asset or property (one that you don’t intend to sell for at least one year and will be used to earn long-term income), and it’s placed in service before the end of the year, you can typically write off the cost in 2019. Thanks to changes made by the TCJA, this now applies to both new and used assets. The TCJA boosted the deduction limit to $1.02 million with a phase-out threshold of $2.55 million for 2019. It also increased bonus depreciation to 100% for property placed in service after September 27, 2017 and before January 1, 2023.

Travel Expenses

The IRS recently clarified that food and beverage costs are deductible by 50% in certain circumstances and when those costs are stated separately from entertainment on invoices or receipts.

QBI Deductions

One of the most significant changes made by the TCJA affects owners of pass-through entities (partnerships, S corporations, and LLCs) as it authorized a deduction of up to 20% of the owner’s qualified business income (QBI) for the tax years 2018 through 2025. The QBI deduction is reduced for some taxpayers based on the amount of their income, so some individuals may need to consider reducing their taxable income so it falls under the $157,500 threshold ($315,000 for married filing jointly), whether by making contributions to retirement plans or health savings accounts, or even through charitable contributions. Something to keep in mind is that specified service business owners, which includes most personal-service providers, are not eligible for the deduction if their taxable income is above a certain threshold.

Business Repairs

It isn’t a bad idea to complete minor repairs by the end of the year because the deductions can offset taxable business income. However, costs of improvements to business property must be written off over time. If you’re unsure whether a specific renovation or upgrade falls under a repair or an improvement, the IRS recently issued regulations that clarify the distinctions.

Estimated Tax Payments

If your corporation is anticipating a small net operating loss for 2019 but a substantial net income in 2020, you might think about accelerating just enough of the corporation’s 2020 income to create a small amount of net income for 2019. You could also choose to defer some 2019 deductions. This way, rather than having to pay estimated taxes based on 100% of your 2020 taxable income, you will be able to base your estimated tax installments on the comparatively small amount of income shown on your 2019 return.

Stephen Reed - Accountant Indianapolis