Many workers dream of retiring early. Not everyone has a choice in the matter, but if you do, there are some disadvantages and challenges to be aware of. Even if you can afford to retire early, you might not want to.
Here are some disadvantages to be aware of when it comes to early retirement.
Savings in a traditional IRA or 401(K) can’t be withdrawn without penalty before age 59 ½, so in order to retire earlier, you’ll need to have enough savings in a traditional bank or brokerage account to cover your costs until then. As for social security benefits, you’re allowed to start claiming benefits at 62, but that’s before full retirement age, so claiming early could result in a permanent reduction in benefits (i.e. if your full retirement age is 66 and you claim benefits at 62, you’ll reduce your payments by 25%).
Medicare eligibility doesn’t kick in until age 65, so retiring earlier than that means having to absorb the cost of health insurance independently. If you retire with just a few months to go before Medicare kicks in, you have the option of obtaining short-term coverage, which helps pay for catastrophic medical events but doesn’t typically cover preventive care or pre-existing conditions. If you’re looking at a longer stretch between retirement and Medicare eligibility, you’ll need to shop around for major medical insurance. These plans are the most comprehensive for early retirees and cover a broad range of medical care, from doctor visits to major surgery.
Early retirees can have a difficult time adjusting to an unstructured schedule. With high levels of energy and drive, and a strong desire to still be productive, they risk sinking into boredom and depression as they progress deeper into retirement. Increased anxiety, dementia, and cardiovascular disease have all been linked to health risks of early retirement as well. For this reason, it’s a good idea to keep an open mind about returning to work should you start to feel that early retirement wasn’t as fulfilling as you’d hoped.
Though there are some things to think about before retiring early, with careful planning and goal setting, you can make it work. It’s best to begin saving consistently (and early) – in a Roth IRA or traditional 401(K), but also in a nontraditional retirement plan so that you can have access to those funds before age 58 ½. Financial planners advise to save 30% of your income, as opposed to the conventional target of 10% or 15%. And transfer all tax refunds and bonuses into your nest egg as well. In short, cutting out your daily coffee house latte isn’t going to get you to early retirement.
The end of 2018 is quickly approaching, but there are a few key money moves you should make before the new year, especially in light of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act. The higher standard deduction means more Americans will ditch itemizing their 2018 federal tax returns.
That means you should probably focus on year-end tax strategies that first lower taxable income, rather than maximize tax deductions. Here are a few key items to tackle before the ball drops on the new year.
Take Stock of Losses
If you follow the stock market, you know that the last few months have been volatile, so there’s a good chance that some of your investments have become losses. That might sound bad, but any losses that are in a taxable account, such as an investment account, bank account, or money market mutual fund, can be sold to offset other taxable investment gains in the same year. Furthermore, if your losses exceed your gains, you can apply up to $3,000 to offset ordinary taxable income from this year.
Max Out Retirement Savings
As close as possible, that is. The more money you put into your 401(k), the more financial security you’ll have in the long run, but a lot of these contributions also reduce your taxable income. At this point you probably only have one or two more paychecks from which to have funds withheld, but even a few hundred dollars more can provide some near-term tax relief as well as bolster your retirement savings.
Fund Your HSA
You have until the 2018 tax-filing deadline to fully fund your health saving account (HSA) in order to get a bigger deduction. The maximum limits are:
- Individuals: $3,450
- Families: $6,900
- 55 or older: an additional $1,000 catch-up contribution
These accounts can roll over indefinitely, so they’re a smart way to save for future medical expenses. HSAs also have a triple tax benefit: contributions are tax-deductible (even if you don’t itemize), earned interest is tax-free, and withdrawals are tax-free as long as they’re used to pay for qualified medical expenses.
Use Up Your FSA
The funds in a flexible spending account typically don’t roll over to the next calendar year. However, some employers allow $500 to carry over into the new year or grant employees until March to spend FSA funds. Even so, now is a good time to use the pretax dollars for doctor appointments, flu shots, and even some “everyday” drugstore items, such as non-prescription reading glasses, contact lenses and solutions, and reading glasses.
If you’re wondering whether you should itemize your 2018 tax returns or take the standard deduction, here are a few last things to keep in mind:
- Medical treatment: If you spend more than 7.5 percent of your adjusted gross income this year on medical expenses, you can deduct those costs.
- Property taxes: If you paid less than the $10,000 limit for state and local taxes, your state may allow you to prepay 2019 property taxes. This way you’ll get the most from the state and local taxes deduction.
- Mortgage Interest: Provided you’re not near the cap on the mortgage interest deduction, which is $750,000 after the new tax law, you can make your January mortgage payment in December to boost the amount of interest you paid during the 2018 tax year.
- Charitable donations: If you routinely give to charities, double up on contributions and make your 2019 donation before year’s end. If you put the double donation into a donor advised fund, which is like a charitable investment account, you’re eligible to take an immediate tax deduction. That means you can take the deduction for 2018 while your funds are invested for tax-free growth, allowing you to make distributions to charity next year or beyond.
The Treasury Department has announced retirement plan contribution limits, which are adjusted annually, for 2019. Because inflation has gone up a bit recently, contribution limits are also going up, which means you can save more money next year.
The maximum pre-tax contribution limit for an Individual Retirement Account (IRA) is increasing to $6,000 in 2019 after a six-year stall at $5,500. An extra $500 may not seem like a big deal, but the investment will compound over time, making the increase especially valuable for younger workers. For example, an investment of $500 annually will amount to an extra $100,000 in retirement savings over 35 years.
Employees who participate in a 401(k) or similar workplace retirement plan can expect an increase from $18,500 in 2018 to $19,000 in 2019. That limit will also apply to 403(b), the Federal Government’s Thrift Savings Plan (TSP), and most 457 plans. As a result of this change, workers can defer paying income tax on approximately $42 more per month.
For those 50 years old and over, catch-up contribution limits remain the same for 2019: $6,000 for workplace plans and $1,000 for IRAs. All of this combined means that savers over 50 have the potential to stash away $32,000 in 2019.
The maximum amount of annual compensation that can be taken into account when determining employer and employee contributions is increasing in 2019 from $275,000 to $280,000. However, highly compensated employees may face additional limits on contributions. Earning more than $120,000 in 2018 may qualify you as highly compensated for 2019 contribution limits, and earning more than $125,000 in 2019 may qualify you as highly compensated for 2020 contribution limits.
If you have any questions or would like to review your retirement plan contribution amounts together, please give me a call at 317.549.3091 or email me to schedule an appointment.
Financial advisors commonly advise their clients to seek investments with high returns in order to maximize their retirement funds, but most investors don’t realize that high fees are eating into those earnings.
While fund fees have steadily declined in recent years, many investors don’t realize how much they’re paying in fees to begin with or how much these expenses and other investment costs are eating into their retirement savings. Remember that as your investment returns compound over time, so do the fees, which means your payments could accumulate to 2% or more.
Below are some of those hidden fees and what you can do to avoid them.
This refers to the annual fees charged by all mutual funds, index funds, and exchange-traded funds as a percentage of your investment in the fund. Expense ratios apply to all types of retirement funds, such as your 401(k), individual retirement account, or brokerage account, and they cut a percentage of your investment in the fund depending on its annual yield.
Mutual Fund Transaction Fees
This is a fee you pay a broker to buy and sell some mutual funds on your behalf, similar to a “trade commission” that a broker would charge to buy or sell stock.
These fees surface when a broker successfully sells a fund to you that has a sales charge or commission.
These fees are associated with maintaining your portfolio or brokerage account.
Brokerage Account Inactivity Fees
If your account allows you to buy and trade at any time, you could face an unexpected inactivity charge if you don’t trade for a few months.
To determine whether your retirement fees are too high, check the fee disclosure and look at the expense ratios on the mutual funds you are invested in. Likewise, check these fees before you invest in a mutual fund you are interested in.
To help balance your investment accounts and minimize your retirement fees, take advantage of lower-fee mutual funds if your 401(k) plan already has an expense ratio of over 1%.
Finally, be aware that fees may also be related to how much advice you’re getting and where that advice is coming from. Human advisors are more expensive than robo-advisors, and an actively managed fund will cost more than an index fund or an exchange-traded fund (ETF).
When you accept a new job with a new company, you need to decide what to do with the money in your 401(k) plan. Here are your options.
1. Leave the money in your former employer’s 401(k) plan
While this is typically an option, and your funds will continue to grow tax-deferred, it may not be the best option. For starters, once you move to your new place of employment, you’re no longer able to contribute to it. Another possible deterrent is the fact that your former employer could switch 401(k) providers or get bought out by a different company. Both scenarios would potentially leave you in the dark in regards to your account number or login information. However, if your new employer requires employees to work a certain length of time at the company before permitting them to partake in the 401(k) plan, leaving your 401(k) funds with your former employer temporarily might be a good game plan.
2. Roll your 401(k) to your new employer’s plan
If your new employer allows rollovers, you can have your 401(k) funds directly transferred to your new employer’s plan. This is called a “trustee-to-trustee” transfer: assets from one trustee or custodian of a retirement savings plan are transferred to the trustee or custodian of another retirement savings plan. By having your 401(k) funds directly transferred following federal rollover rules, you’ll avoid having federal income tax withheld, and your money will be easier to manage in one account. You can also have the funds transferred to a new or existing IRA.
3. Transfer your plan via an indirect rollover
Another possible alternative is to roll the funds over to another employer-sponsored retirement plan by having your 401(k) distribution check made out to you, and then depositing the funds to a new retirement savings plan. However, this particular move will require that 20 percent of the taxable portion of your distribution is withheld for federal income taxes. And if you wait beyond 60 days to redeposit the funds, the full amount of your distribution will be taxable.
Whichever way you choose to move forward with your 401(k) plan, you should be aware of rollover fees. Typically the fee is only a minimal one-time fee, but it’s worth checking in with your 401(k) provider to discuss this as well as any other questions you might have.
As you approach retirement you’re probably going to be asking yourself when to collect social security benefits. After all, the longer you wait, the more money you can secure. For instance, as long as you’ve paid into the program for 40 quarters (or roughly 10 years), you can start collecting as early as age 62, though full social security retirement age ranges from 65 to 67 for people born after 1943. If you can hold off a few more years, however, your benefit increases by about 8% every year until age 70.
Experts recommend that one thing to look at is whether or not you can afford to wait. Do you have financial flexibility with other assets that can cover your expenses, or do you need the extra monthly payment to keep with the lifestyle to which you’ve grown accustomed? If it’s the latter, you may be forced to withdraw sooner or make changes to your lifestyle. What about existing investments? If you collect early, your investments can grow longer, but they would have to grow by at least 8% a year just to equalize the loss from collecting early.
As you decide when to start withdrawing social security, take into account the age at which you’re planning to retire. If you’re still in the workforce when you become eligible to receive benefits, you can start collecting social security. However, there are some potential downsides to consider. For example, if you haven’t reached your full retirement age, you lose $1 for every $2 you earn above the $15,480.00 earning limit. Your benefits are recalculated to recover those lost benefits once you reach full retirement age, but it can take up to 15 years just to restore the loss.
Another consideration to look at is your marriage status. If you’re married, experts recommend that the higher earner in the marriage hold off on collecting benefits for as long as possible. However, it’s possible for the higher earner to file for benefits at retirement age and then suspend them, which could allow your spouse to collect a spousal benefit equal to ½ of your full retirement benefit. Meanwhile, your benefit continues to grow until age 70.
Lastly, consider your health. If you’re in poor health, you might be better off taking benefits early. According to the Social Security Administration, if you live to the average life expectancy for your age, you’ll get about the same amount of benefits no matter when you start collecting. The longer you live beyond that age, the more you’ll benefit by delaying payments.
With so many factors to consider, there is no “right” age to start collecting social security benefits, so just be sure that you’re making an informed decision when the time comes.